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ISSUED WEEKLY BY O W 

UNiTED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



VOL. 33 NOVEMBER 23, 193S NO. 21 

FEATURE ARTICLES 



BRITISH MILK MARKETING SCHEME 
(Page 634) 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH CANADA 
(Page 641) 



IN THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Southern Hemisphere wheat condition improved 625 

Canadian bread-grain production low 625 

Oriental wheat markets 626 

Japan to harvest bumper rice crop 627 

China completing harvest of large cotton crop 627 

Japanese imports of American cotton continue low 629 

North American apple exports to United Kingdom lagging 631 

London wool values advance 632 



634 



Foreign Crops and Markets 
LATE CABLES 



Vol. ,33, Y^o. 21 



Union of South Africa provisional estiino.te of 195G-.37 wheat crop 
placed at 15,800,000 busliels as against 20,197,000 bushles in 1935-36. 
(International Institute of Agriculture, Rome, Kovemher 19, 1936.) 

L atvio 1935 wneat prodaction Gstimated at 5,254,000 "bushels as 
compared with 6,520,000 "iiushels reported in 1935. (International 
Institute of Agriculture, Rome, IJovem'ber 19, 1S36.) 

Argentina crop conditio n of 1936-37 wheat and flaxseed considered 
good. Threshing has stai'ted in the north. Condition of corn crop also 
good, hut area sown, this sen,son expected to ho less than in 1935-36. 
(International Institute of Agriculture, Rome, l-yovenher 19, 1935.) 

London colonial wool sales , which opened Ilovemhcr 17, continue 
with generoJ tone of inexket excellent. Compared irith the closing of the 
preceding series on Sriptemher 25, prices of greasv merinos are 15 percent 
higher and scoured cross oreds 12 to 15 percent higher. Opening rates 
maintained for other descriptions. (Soo p,Tge 632.) Chief "bu/ers of 
merinos ',7ere from Soviet Russia, Eranca, Gcrm-ny, Austria, Switzerland, 
and Yorkshire, while cross'brcds v7ore taken hy Yorkshire, French, German, 
and Dutch "buyers. Slipes were ho-ught chiefly hy Yorkshire and Americoji 
"bidders. (Agricultui-al Attacnd C. C. Taylor, London, loverahor 20, 1936.) 



Novemner i33, 1936 foreign Crops and Markets g25 

C K 0 P AND ivi A H K E T P H 0 S P S C T S 



BREAD GRAIIVS 

C ondition of Soutxie rn Eer aisphe re wheat somevrh at improved 

Tiie condition of the 1935-37 wheat crop of Austr al ia improved diaring 
the past month over aoout half of the principal wheat-trowing areas, ac- 
cording to a caole from the International Institute of Agriculture at ilome. 
Eavoraule v/ea-ther conditions prevailed in "both South Australia and Victoria 
v/ith the result that prospects are better in the former and are considered 
good in the latter, where an abundajit harvest is expected. Rainfall was 
insufficient, however, in Kew South wales, a.nd yields are expected to he 
rather poor. In western Australia, the weather k/as also unfavorable, with 
scant rain received and further deterioration indicated. 

General rains during trie mionth of October benefited the 1935-37 
wheat crojj of Argen tina , according to a report from the .ministry of Agri- 
culture. The condition of the plants is good in most of the wheat zone, 
and if the weather is favorable during the harvest period, prospects point 
to a satisfactory outturn. Sorat; locust da.mage ha-s been reported, but on 
the: v^hole tne crop has s-'ii'fcred little from pests and diseases, 

Bread -gra.in pr oduc tion in Canada 

The 1936 wheat crop of Canada is now placed at 233,500,000 bushels, 
accordint5 to the second official estimate issued by che Dominion Buree,u of 
Statistics at Otta.wa, indica,ting &n increa.se of about 500,000 bushels over 
the first estimate in September of 232,973,000 bushels. The estimate of 
fa.ll wheat was increased hy 663,000 hushels, hut spring v/heat -was decreased 
"by 136,000 bushels. The total for 1935 was 277,339,000 bushels, while in 
1930-1934, an average of 54S,560,000 bushels v/as obtained. In the prairie 
Provinces, which constitute the most import.ant whea.t a.rea of Canada, the 
1936 crop is placed at 216,000,000 bushels as against 259,500,000 cushels 
in 1935, The crop entered the market on record time this sea.son, since the 
drought ca-used the grain to mature at an unusua,lly early date, axid fine 
weathar favored ha.rvesting operations. pLelatively high prices encouraged 
^arly deliveries, and total tiarketings were aaove the 1935 level until the 
$i20 of the crop oncsme known. Since then they have fallen steadily under 
the marketings of 1935. V/ith prices high and qua-lity good, it is expected 
the.t farmers will hold only a. small pa.it of their wheat this year. 

The second estim.ate of the Ca.nadian rye crop was placed at 4,368,000 
bushels, a decline of ol4,000 bushels from earlier expectations. Most of 
the decrease occurred in the estimate for fall rye, which was reduced by 
16 percent. The total 1935 crop amcyunted to 9,506,000 bushels and the 
5-year average, 1930-1934, to 3^,939,000 hushels. 



626 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, ¥.0 . 21 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CD HT'D 



The oriental wheat markets 

Chin a 

Since the good rains of early November, seeding for the 1937 v/heat 
crop has gone forward in the Yangtze Valley, hut in North China sowings 
have "Deen greatly delayed hy dry weather, according to information from 
the Shanghai office of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Arrivals of 
domestic wheat continued to he restricted through November 13, and the 
activity of the mills is said to have "been reduced. Y/hile there were 
plentiful supplies of various kinds of grains in the country as a whole, 
reports of drought tended to encourage speculation and support high prices. 
There appeared to be enough flour available to meet the demand, but some 
caution was evidenced about buying, in view of the uncertainty of future 
flour prices. Dom^'-stic wheat prices continued to be below foreign quota- 
tions. 

Japan 

Purchases of United States wheat, arao-anting to about 1,000,000 
bushels, had been made by Japan up to November 1, according to information fur- 
nished the Sha.nghai office by Consul General Garrels at Tokyo. The mills 
were active, and the export demand for flour fairly good during the month. 
Prices of foreign wheat declined somewhat, but domestic prices remained 
unchanged, thus narro7/ing the margin to a slight extent. 

Prices 01 wheat at the mill on November 1, duty and landing charges 
included, v/ere quoted as follows: Western "Thite No. 2, SI. 41 per bushel; 
Canadian No. 5, $1.49, No. 1, $1.55; Australian fair average quality, 
nominal, $1.39; Manchurian, ncminal, $1.47 per bushel. Dome'stic standard 
was ;i)1.21 and Portland wheat, c.i.f. Yokohoma, $1.07 per bushel. The 
wholesale price of flour at the mill was $1.31 per bag of 49 poxmds; c.i.f. 
Dairen, $1.09 (p£;tent flour). 

Imports of wheat iixto Japan during October wer-^ reported as follows, 
with 1S35 co.;;pari sons in parentheses: From Canada 553,000 bushels (O) , 
Australia 0 (509,000), Manchuria 106,000 (53,000), China 106,000 (O) , totaJ. 
765,000 bushels (564,000). Since July 1, imports hrve amowited to 2,168,000 
bushels as compared with 2,918,000 bushels in July-October 1935. Srports of 
flour totaled only r.bout CO, 000 br.jrrels in '■-'ctober this year as af;rinGt 
211,000 barrjls iu October 1935. The July-October total was 182,000 barrels 
as compared with 711,000 barrels exported in the corresponding period of 1935 

m 



November 23, 1936 Foreign Cror)s and Markets 627 

CROP AUD MARKET PROSPECTS, COIIT'D 



RICE 

Japan to harvest 'bumper rice crop 



Previous estimates of a "bijmper rice crop in Japan are suostantiated 
"by the second official estimate of the 1936 crop just iss'Jied by the 
Japanese Government, according to a radio from Agricultural Commissioner 
0. L. Dawson at Shanghai. This estimate places the crop at 21,409,000,000 
pounds of cleaned rice, compared t/ith IS, 525, 000, 000 pounds la.st yea.r and 
with the annual average of 19,180,000,000 poiands for the preceding 6 years. 
The only larger crop ever grown in Japan was 22,835,000,000 pounds in 1933. 

The ITovemher 1, 1933, carry-over of old rice in Japan will "be fairly 
large, present estimates placing it at 2,579,000,000 pounds. The new crop 
added to the Noveraher 1 stocks and supplemented hy anticipated imports of 
4,191,000,000 pounds from Korea and Formosa will give a total supply of 
28,180,000,000 pounds for 1936-37. Requirements for consumption in Japan 
are estimated at 23,859,000,000 pounds and it is anticipated that 161,000,000 
pounds will he exported. This would leave a carry-over next fall of 
4,160,000,000 poijnds . 



COTTOIT 

China completing harvest of large cotton crop 

The ha2~vesting of the Chinese cotton crop is about completed, and 
arrivals reported at Shanghai for Octoher have been material-ly higher than 
a year ago, according to information received from Agricultural Cominissioner 
0. L. Dawson, at Shanghai. It is expected that arrivals will continue 
fairly heavy, e.s much cotton is reported waiting for railroad shipment in 
North China. Stocks of cotton in Shanghai public warehouses are greater 
than a year ago, and mill stocks are gradually "being "built up from their low 
level at the "beginning of the see.son. 

It is not expected that a large volujne of Chinese cot"Don will be 
exported to Japan. It is estimated that in order to stimulate any important 
exports to Japan the price of Chinese cotton nrust decline about $4 per bale. 
Chinese cotton is "being offered quite freely now, "but whether such a re-" 
duction in price will reduce the volume of cotton offered for sale depends 
upon general economic conditions in late winter. ■ , . . 

The present yarn market is firm.. The price of yarn, which is at 
least 10 percent higher than that of cotton, is the highest in recent years 



523 



I^oreign Crops aad Markets Vol. 33, llo . 21 

CROP ANi: MARKET PROSPECTS, COl^T'D 



and it enables the spinners to operate at a fair profit. Japanese and some 
Chinese mills are sold well forward and yarn is therefore expected to move 
freely for the next few months. 

Mill activity was greater in September than in August. Japanese 
cotton mills in North China are expanding and a considerahle increase in 
yarn and textile production in Tientsin is expected in 1937. 



CHINA: Imports of raw cotton in September 1936, with comparisons 
^ ( In "bales of 500 po^un-ds) 



Growth 


_ r^-^ 

August 


September 


1934-35 


1935-36 




Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


American 


1,276 


779 


135, 639 


51,398 


Indian 


5,144 


3,849 


106,932 


92,448 


Egyptian 


1, 721 


439 


26,805 


26,104 


Others 


1,963 


4,363 


703 


9,213 


Total 


10,109 


9,430 


272,079 


179,163 



CHINA: Preliminary Shanghai arrivals of raw cotton in October 1936, 
with comparisons (in bales of 500 pounds) 



1935 , 1936 



C-rowth 


October 


. . , ... 

September 


October 




Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


American 


12 


450 


300 


Indian 


1 , 200 


1,280 


a/ 


Chinese 


91,612 


19,031 


209 , 543 


Egyptian 


836 


513 


1,369 


Others 


a/ 


4 , 940 


6,736 


Total 


93, 660 


26,214 


218 , 548 



a/ Negligible 



CHINA: Cotton deliveries to Shanghai mills in October 1933, 

wi th comparisons (in bales of 500 pounds) . . 

1936 



Growtn 


October 


September 


October 




Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


American 


5,000 


1 , 000 


0 


Indi uxi 


2,000 


4,000 


1,000 


Chinese 


102,000 


39,000 


177,000 


Egyptian 


■ 1,000 


a/ 


1,000 


Others 


0 


5,000 


6,000 


Total .. 


110,000 


49,000 


185,000 



a/ Negligible. 



November 23, 1936 Jorcign Crops and Markets 629 

CROP AlTD MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



CHINA: Stocks of cotton in Shanghai public warehouses, October 31, 1936, 
with comparisons (in bales of 500 pounds) 



Growth 


; 1935 


19: 


56 


• October 31 


Sep,tembe,r 30 


October 31 




; JBa.lps 


Bales , 








0 


300 






1,000 


400 






60,000 


91,900 






0 


1,500 






1,000 


1,400 






62 , 000 


95, '500 



CHINA: Price per pound of specified grades of cotton at Shanghai, 
Novem.be r 11, 19 36, wi t h co m parisons 



GroT/th 



Domestic cotton (November delivery) .. 
Domestic cotton (January delivery) .. 
American Middling (imjnediate delivery) 
Indian Akola 



1956 



nr,to.bex„13- 



■■Cexits. 
10. 61 
10.97 
15. 80 
11.95 



November 11 



Cent s 

10.60 
10.81 
16.00 
11. 77 



Jap anese imports of American c otton c on tinue low 

Japanese imports of American cotton continued low in September, 
according to infonnation received from Agricultural Commissioner 0. L. Dawson 
at Shanghai (quoting Vice Consul McConaughy at Kobe). Official reports place 
the total imports at 254,000 bales, m.ade up of 27,000 bales American, 135,000 
Indian, and 92,000 bales from all other sources. Japanese cotton imports in 
August amounted to 266,658 bales, consisting of 54,835 bales American, 146,200 
bales Indian, and 65,623 bales of all other growths. Cotton imports other than 
American and Indian show an increase, due chiefly to a larger amount of 
Brazilian cotton. 



The takings of American cotton during September were the smallest for 
any month in a decade, but they are not indicative of the future trend of 
American cotton exports to Japan. The abnormally low September imports were 
largely seasonal. The actual movement of the new crop was not well under way 
at that time. The volume of cotton shipped to Japan at the end of September 
indicates that Ajacrican cotton imports for October will show a considerable 
rise. 



630 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 21 

CROP' AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



At the moment it is difficult to forecast the possible effect of 
Brazilian cotton upon American in the Japanese market. In recent 

months Brazilian cotton improved its position in Japan, hut Indiaii cotton 
is a more continuous threat to American, price differential plays a greater 
part in advance sales of Indian cotton than in the case of Brazilian. It 
appea.rs that the Brazilian commercial mission in Japan was unable to reach 
any definite agreement with regard to sales of Brazilian cotton. 

There was a notable decline in wharf stocks of raw cotton in September 
as compared with those of August, while mill stocks increased as a result 
of large takings during the month. The decrease in wharf stocks applies 
to all major growths except Peruvian and Egyptian. Stocks consisted chiefly 
of rapidly disappearing supplies of old-stock cotton. A considerable in- 
crease is expected when new-crop cotton begins arriving in substantial 
quantities. September mill takings were more than double those of August. 
All principal growths shared in this increase. The augmented takings were 
far above actual mill consumption for the month. 

A significant development which occurred during the month of September 
was a stricter control of cloth exports by trade guilds -under the sanction 
of the .Japanese Department of Commerce .and Industry. This was especially 
true with respect to exports to Hong Kong, the Netherlands East Indies, and 
the Straits Settlements. The extension of guild control to Hong Kong ship- 
ments was designed primarily to -prevent the export of unauthorized shipments 
of Japanese cloth from Hong Kong to the Philippines. 



JAPAN: Raw cotton imports in September 1936, with comparisons 

(In bales of 500 pounds) 



Type 


1935 


1936 










September 


August 


September 




Bales 


Bales 


Bales 


Indian 


55,000 


146,200 


135,000 




56 , 000 


54 , 835 


27,000 




5,000 


7,178 


5,000 




8,000 


3,875 


7,000 




12,000 


54,570 


■ 80,000 


Total 


136,000 


266,658 


254 , 000 



Nq^^em-ber 23, 1936 Yoreign Crops and Markets 

CROP AND MARKET P R 0 S P E C T S, C 0 N T'D 



631 



JAPM: Mill takings of cotton, Septein"ber 1936, with comparisons 

(in tales of 500 pounds) 


Type 


1935 


193 6 


Septemher 


August 


SeptemlDer 


Indian. 

American 

Egyptian 

Others 

Total 


Bales 


Sales 


Sales 


103 , 000 
84,000 
6,000 
16 , 000 


146,771 
77,300 
8,756 
56,075 


349 , 000 
102,000 
10,000 
130 , 000 


214,000 


288,903 


591,000 



JAPM : 



Indian. . . 
American. 
Others . . . 



Total, 



TTharf stocks of raw cotton, September, 193'; 

(in TDa3.es of 500 pounds) 
i'935 ' 



'i'ype 



Ssptem" ber 
Bales 
169 , 000 
63 , 000 
29 ,000 



261,000 



Au>:iast 



with comparisons 



193( 



Spies. 
324,022 
153,838 
78 ,374 



536,234 



Ssptemher 



Ba.le s 

260 .000. 
94,000 
62 , 000 



436,000 



?RUIT, VEGETABLES, AM) FJTS 



Exports of apples to the United Kin,-:;dom la£,'ging 

Total exports of apples to the United Kingdom from North America 
through OctolDer 1936 amo-anted to about 2,742,000 bushels compared with 
6,121,000 bnashels last season to the same date, according to the Internationa] 
Apple Association. This decline in e:cports is due largely to the small 
apple crop in North America, particjlarly the United States, coupled with a 
large crop in the United Kingdom. Ylhlle exports have been reduced, returns 
to shippers have been higher than in 1935 with the possible exception of 
shipments originating in Nova Scotia. Lack of quality apples in that impor- 
tant exporting Province has been reflected in low returns ou many shipments. 

Exports of apples from the West Coast of North America have shown 
a smaller decline than from the East Coast. The decline in the e:cports of 
West Coast boxes from the United States and Canada has been about 37 percent 
as contrasted with a decline of 65 percent in the exports of barrels and 
"baskets, most of which are grown along the Atlantic seaboard. Two reasons 



632 I'oreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, iTo . 21 

CROP AHD MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



prolDatly ex^olain vrhy the decline in exports from the Atlantic producing 
regions have been heaviest. The crop is relatively smaller than that of 
the Pacific Coast i:)roducing regions and the large consioming centers are 
nearer. Another reason is that the pacific fruit is packed more attrac- 
tively and often has a better appearance. This fa.ct is important in a year 
of large English apple crojjs, the "bulk of which is of rather low quality. 
Should the present maritime strike he prolonged, exports from the United 
States will show a greater decline as compared with 1935. 

Of the total exports of 2,74-2,000 bushels of apples from ITorth 
America to the United Kingdom, 1,736,000 bushels have gone forward from 
Canada and 1,006,000 from the United States. Last year at this time the 
exports from the United States of 3,125,000 bushels were slightly larger 
than the exports of 2,996,000 bushels from Canada. 

Exports of apples produced in the three Pacific Coast states 
totaled 661,000 boxes compared with 1,208,000 boxes to the same date last 
season, or a decline of 45 percent. Exports of barrels and baskets have 
shown an even greater decline. Taken together, the equivalent of only 
115,000 barrels had been exported through October, or a decline of 82 per- 
cent compared with the same period in 1935. 

Exports of apples in boxes from Canada, most of which are produced 
in British Columbia, had reached 729,000 boxes by November 5, 1936, against 
991,000 boxes to the same date in 1935. Exports of barrels, the b-cdk of 
which originate in Nova Scotia, amounted to 336,000 barrels by November 5 
compared with 668,000 barrels in the same period in 1935. 



LIVESTOCK, IvIEAT, AND WOOL 

London wool values advance 

The London wool sales opened November 17 with prices from 10 to 25 
percent higher than at the close of the preceding series on September 25, 
according to cabled advices from Agricultural Attache" C. C. Taylor at 
London. Competition was keen, with Yorkshire the chief buyer of cross- 
breds and continental buyers principally interested in merinos. Anericaji 
interest was centerad on New Zealand slipes . In merinos, prices for 
greasy opened fully 10 percent above the close of the preceding series 
with scoured merinos up 15 percent. TTarp fine crossbreds also advanced 
15 percent. Other crossbreds were up from 20 to 25 percent while slipes 
advanced 15 to 25 percent. 



llovember 23, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 633 

CROP AND MARK3T PROSPECTS, C ONT'D 



The firm denand for raw wool, especially Australian, and the "apv;ard 
price tendency, is "being accompanied by increased activity in the British 
wool textile industry, according to Consul E. E. Evans at Bradford. Wool 
cnnsumption was maintained at a high level during the first half of 
November, with supplies of raw material moving into consumption without 
any appreciable accumulation of stocks. Shipments from producing countries 
were absorbed quickly upon arrival. 

The strong tone of the new London sales was generally anticipated. 
It was expected th^^t about 102,000 bales would be on offer, and that they 
would move at advancing prices. The position of crossbred has been 
particularly strong in recent weeks, with all available spot supplies 
needed to fill contractutil requirements of the trade. Demand for certain 
grades of crossbred tops was in excess of supply, with topmakers finding 
it difficult to obtain the wool needed to accommodate all potential buyers 
of tops. There was considerable pressure from spinners for early deliveries 

The upward movement in wool and top prices has brought out more 
business in yarns. Weavers appear to feel that the wool market outlook 
justifies soffiewhat more liberal forward buying on the basis of present 
values. Some business, therefore, has been done in a volume exceeding 
contractual requiremients. Spinners were not able to fully cover the re- 
cent advances in ya,rn prices,' but yarn users have come to the point of 
paying prices which they would have considered excessive around Novem^ber 1* 
There has been a sharp increase in the Arnerica.n pu.rchases of Yorkshire spun 
yarns in recent weeks. 

Buyers of piece goods h-ive been operating more freely following 
the stronger tone in raw wool and semi-manufactures. In most cases the 
stability of the present value trends seemis to be accepted. There is a 
better tone in worsted manufacturing , and the outlook is regarded as more 
promising. Fine and 'medium worsted suitings are in better demand, and 
there is more 'business in worsted for the women' s -trade. Good orders are 
being boo'ked in flannels, sports, tweeds, and gabardines, and repeat 
orders iii overcoatingB have been kept at a high level. 

The upturn in business activity and prices has been accompanied 
by increased employment of v;-orkers in both the woolen and worsted branches 
of the industry. The improvement has been m.ost marked in the spinning mills 
with all departments of the woolen section reporting substantial increases 
in the numbers employed.' The im.provement in the worsted section, however, 
has not been as marked as in woolens. 



634 



Toreign Crops o,nd Markets 



Vol. 33, -go. 21 



BIJTISH MILK MAEKETING SCHEME aj 

The British Government attaches gree.t imioortance to its schemes to 
aid British dairymen. This arises from the fact that dairy products pro- 
vide so large a part of the agricultural income, hut, with the exception 
of fluid milk and cream, so small a part of the national requirements. 
The United States is a minor supplier of condensed milk hut does not figure 
in British imports of other dcdry products. Import duties have been im- 
posed on most dairy products from foreign countries and c ertain import 
quotas he-ve also "been applied. Under authority of the Agricultural ivlarket- 
ing Acts of 1951 and 1933, six marketing schemes he.ve been started covering 
the various parts of the United Kingdom. The scheme for England and b'ales, 
to \,"i..^cl.- the smaller schemes are similar, has set up a producer- 
controlled Doard v'ith jurisdiction over the entii'e industry empowered to 
fix producer, consumer, and intermediate prices. Supplementary legislation 
has been enacted to subsidize the board with respect to the lower priced 
manufactured products, to encourage m.ilk quality improvement, and to stimu- 
late demand. 

The boa.rds ha,ve been confronted with innumera,ble problems of detail 
but the schemes have evidently accomplished their purpose. Milk prices 
have increased, production has expanded a,nd producers ha.ve endorsed the 
plan at subsequent polls. 

Importance o f scheme 

Milk and milk products represent about 28 percent of the total 
estimated value of agricultural produce sold off farms in England and Wales 
and are exceeded only slightly by livestock. Such products are also im- 
portant in Scotland and Northern Ireland, 

The utilization of the total production of milk in Great Brita.in 
during 1930-31 (exclusive of milk fed to livestock) v/as as follows: 'oj 

(in million imperial gallons c/) 

Pluid milk 946.9 

Butter 210.5 

Cheese 137.1 

Creara 45.7 

Condensed 24.3 

British railk production is now estime.ted to be about 1,500,000,000 
gallons of T/hich about ^0,000,000 gallons are used for ma.nuf acturing 
purposes, 

a/ Report prepared by Agricultural Attacne C. C. Taylor, London. A pre- 
vious report on the British import control of milk products was published 
in "]?oreign Crops and Markets " , January 6, 1936. b/ Economic Series, p. 199, 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, c/ 5 imperial gallons equal 6 Ameri- 
can gallons, d/ Northern Ireland produced about 100,000,000 gallons in 

p. H T ■*■ i nr| 



powder 11.0 

Other 3.0 

Wasted 43.0 

Unrecorded 4.0 

Total d/ 1,425.5 



November 23, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



635 



BRITISH MILK MAEK3TDIG SCHEME, COiMT 'D 

remaining 1,000,000,000 gallons supplies practically all of the fluid milk 
and cream requirements, "but about 80 percent of the milk-product require- — 
ments is imported, chiefly in the fom of butter and cheese- 

Earlier tariff and im-port quota measure s 

Average net imports of dairy products into the United Kingdom in 
1929-1931 were equivalent to 453,000,000 gallons of whole milk plus 
1,732,000,000 gallons of whole milk of which only the butterfat content 
was imported. During that period only 41 percent of the butterfat require- 
ments and 77 percent of the skim milk requirements were produced in the 
United Kingdom. 

In March 1932, an import duty of 10 percent was imposed. This was 
changed in November of that year to 15 percent on cheese, 15s. per hundred- 
weight on butter (about 3 cents per pound), 6s. per hundredweight on sweetened 
milk powder (about 1.3 cents per pound), and 5s. per hundredweight (6s. if 
not sweetened) on condensed whole milk (1.1 or, unsweetened, 1.3 cents per 
pound). The sugar content of sweetened goods is also dutiable. Empire 
products were left duty-free unless from the Irish Free State and except 
for the preferential sugar duty. The Import Duties Advisory Committee and 
the Treasury are now considering a request for an increase in the duty on 
foreign condensed milk. 

In May 1933, foreign governments were asked to reduce their exporta- 
tions of processed milk and cream to the United Kingdom, and Empire coun- 
tries to avoid any increase. These "voluntary" quota restrictions are still 
in force. 

O peration of the scheme 

Following the enactment of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1933 
and related legislation, six milk-miarketing schemes have been started, one 
covering all England and Wales, three covering various parts of Scotland, 
one covering Northern Ireland and one for the Isle of Man. They differ 
somewhat in detail but the original scheme for England and Wales (started 
October 1933) is indicative of their general structure and functions. 
Under this scheme all producers were required to register with the Milk 
Marketing Board, excepting (1) those producing only for their own families 
or servants or for domestic manufacture, (2) those who sold G-rade A (tuber- 
culin-tested) or Certified milk as such, and (3) those who produced for 
retail sale not more than one gallon per day or who v/holesaled the produce 
of not more than four cows. 

The foregoing exceptions have been slightly altered subsequently. 
The scheme became effective by a majority vote of over 96 percent; 89 percent 
;, of the registered producers voted. It was upheld in a later vote (August 1935) 



636 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, ¥.0. 21 i 



BRITISH MILK MAHKSTniG SCHEIvE, CONT'D 

"by a majority of 31 percent (ovming 85.5 percent of the cows), alDOut 60 per- 
cent voting. In 1935 amendments to the scheme (eliminating the exemption of 
the four-cow wholesaler, preparing the v/ay for including producers of tuoer- 
culin-tested milk, empo'.7ering the "board to reduce producer-retailpr s' levies 
and making it more difficuH-t to teminate the scheme) were carried "b;^ a majority 
of about 88 percent, 30 percent of the registered producers voting. 

A producer-controlled board negotiates prices (see tables, pages 537 
and 538) an.d terms of sale and, with certain exceptions, actua.lly handles 
the monthly distribution of the returns. Producers contract with buyers on 
stande.rd conditions laid down by the board but payments are made to the 
board and, after deduction for expenses and 'levies, the board pays producers, 
producer-retailers sell under license from the board, however, o,t the agreed 
retail price of their district and contribute a levy to the board to help 
carry the less on sale of -manufacturing m.ilk . This lev]-, varying according 
to region, has increased from 1.5d. per gallon to about 4d. (from about 
2 cents to 6.67 cents per American gallon) owing to the increase in the 
board's supply of manufacturing milk. In 1936-37, by on amendment to the 
scheme, regional differentials are eliminated and the levy set at a flat 
rate of 0.5d. for tuberculin-tested milk, 0.75d. for accredited milk and 1.5d. 
for other milk. These levies are 0.5d. higher if not all of the milk is sold 
retail or semi-retail. 

The price of milk sold for the manufacture of cheese (formerly also 
butter and condensed milk for export) varies monthly according to the price 
of Canadian and New Zealand cheese, but is ordinariljr only 3d. to 5d. per 
gallon (aroi^Jid 5 to 8.3 cents per Araerican gallon). .In 1935-36 the plan was 
adopted of weighting the average Canadiaji and Kew ZeaLand cheese prices during 
the months September to Pebraary, inclusive, according to imports of the pre- 
ceding month. The price of milk-for-butter is now calculated in relation to an 
imported-butter-price formula (see footnote c/ to table on page 638) b^at 
varies ordinarily from 3d. to 5d. per gallon. The price for milk used in 
the mamafacture of other products varies according to product up to 9d. 
(7.5 cents per American gallon) biit is at a fixed rate throughout eada year. 

Parmliouse cheese-makers were brought within the scopie of the scheme 
April 1, 1934. S-ach producers with at least 8 (originally 12) milk cows 
were offered the advantages of the Government's subsidy on manufaxturing 
milk, plus an extra payment from the board of Id. per pound for hard cheese 
and 0.5d. for soft cheese, on condition that they sell no liquid milk. In 
the 6 months April-September 1934, farmhouse cheese-makers received such 
payments on nearly 19,000,000 gallons of milk ajnounting to 2.25d. per 
pound for hard cheese and 2d. for soft cheese. In the "sub sequent period 
(October-September 1934-35) such prodacers were permitted to sell milk adoring 



llovember 23, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



637 



BRITISH MILK MARKETING SCHEME, GOITT'D 

the v/inter months "but the terms of compensation were altered. These 
"bonuses for haxd cheese amounted to ahout 4.75d. during Octo"ber-April and 
ahout 3.75d. from May to Septem'ber (un^;7eighted averages). 

Producers of only 14,000,000 gallons of milk Qualified for the fe^rm- 
house-cheese payments during the entire 12 months. In 1935-36 such producers 
were paid for selling no milk during May-Septem"ber (and any other one month) 
a "bonus of 5.5d. per pound of hard cheese sold during Octo'ber- April and 4.5d. 
during May-September . Quality premiums \inder the Accredited Producers Scheme 
were also paid if the producer qualified. Eor Caerphilly or soft cheese 
the corresponding "bonus iras 0.5d. less. Producers with at least 6 (instead 
of 8) coy;s were made eligible to receive these advantages. 

In 1936-37 farmihouse cheese-makers will receive grants on hard 
cheese of 4.5d. during October- April and 3.5d. during May-September. The 
grants for soft cheese v;ill be 0.5d. less. 



MILK: Contract price per imperial gallon, England and Wales, 
by months, October 1933 - September 1936 
(One penny is equivalent to about 2 cents) 



Date 


Eluid milk 


Milk 


for cheese a/ 


Milk-f or- butter b/ 


1933-34 


1934-35 


1935-36 
a936=il7_ 


1933-34 


1934-35 


1935-36 


193.3-34 


1934-35 


1935-35 




Pence 


Pence 


pence 


Pence 


Pence 


pence 


pence 


Pence 


Pence 


Oct. 


c/ 15 


16 


17 


4.50 


3.72 


4.13 


4.50 


3.72 


4.52 


Nov, 


16 


16 


17 


4.00 


4.04 


4.70 


4.00 


4.04 


4.85 


Dec. 


c/ 16 


17 


17 


3.75 


4.25 


4.19 


3.75 


4.25 


4.20 


Jan . 


c/ 16 


17 


17 


3.50 


3.93 


4.30 


3.50 


3.93 


3.89 


Eeb . 


16 


17 


17 


3.25 


4.23 


4.17 


3.25 


4.23 


3.77 


Mar . 


14 


16 


17 


3.25 


4.19 


3.33 


3.25 


4.19 


3.56 


Apr. 


c/ 12 


16 


16 


3.42 


3.12 


3.61 


3.42 


4 .18 


3.28 


May 


12.125 


12.125 


12.125 


3.40 


3.04 


3.96 


3.40 


4.26 


3.19 


■Jione 


12 


12 


12 


3.48 


• 9 X 


4.36 


3.48 


4.04 


0.36 


July 


c/ 12 
c/ 12 


13 


13 


3.75 


3.00 


4.63 


3.75 


4.00 


3. 92 


Aug. 


13 


13 


3.83 


3.79 


4.81 


3.83 


3.79 


4.26 


Sept 


c/ 12 


16 


15 


3.86 


3.67 


5.57 


3.86 


3.93 


4.73 



Agricultural Register 1935-36 and reports by Milk Marketing Board, 
a/ Average price per po-ond during previous month of Canadian and New Zealand 
cheese (finest white), less 1.75d., but April-July, 1935, and March- Augast 
1936, New Zealand only. 

b/ Prior to April 1935, same as for cheese-milk; since October 1, 1935, 
according to butter price formula, but in Cornwall the price is 0.5d. higher 
than stated in this table. 
c_/ Southeastern region Id. higher. ' 



638 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, Wo, 21 

BRITISH iYiILK Mi^iMETING SCHEIvijE, CONT'D 



MILK, USED FOR MAi^WACTURISG: Contract price per gallon, 1933-34 to 1936-37 



One penny is equivalent to about 2 cents) 



iJtilization 



Year "beginning Octo"ber 1 



1933-34 



1934-35 



1935-36 : 1936-37 



Pence 



Pence 



Pence 



Pence 



Cheese (other than soft curd 
cheese, creara cheese, and 
Stilton cheese) 

Stilton cheese 



a / Fo rraula ; h / Fo rmula .'h / Fo rmula 



h/ Fommla 
h/ Formula 



Soft curd cheese and cream cheese ; 

Butter ;a/ Formula 

Condensed milk ■ 6 

Condensed milk for export ■ a/ Formula 

Milk powder. . : f / 6 

Fr-:'sh cr^aza ; £/ 9 

Bottled cream ; 

Tinned cream ; h / 6 

Ice cream ; 

Exported natural sterilized m.ilk..;J_/ 6 

Chocolate • 8 

Other products ■ 9 



7.5 

h/ Formiula 
6 

a/ Formula 
or 4 
4.5 
7.5 

5 

7.5 

6 
8 



'.0 1 Fo rm.ula ; 



4.5 
7.5 
7.5 

5 

7.5 

6 



plus 1 
7.5 

d/ Formula 
el 6 



£/ 5.5 
7.5 
7.5 

i/ 6 
7.5 

6 



The Agricultiiral Rugister, the Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture, and 
Contracts of the Milk Marketing Board. 

a/ Average price per pound during preceding month of Canadian and New Zealand 
cheese (finest white), less l,75d. This is still the cheese-milk price as 
determined ty the Governm.ent in calculating the suhsidy rate, hut the actual 
selling price as determined "by the Milk Board has heen repeatedly revised, 
t/ During April-July 1935, and March-August 1936 and 1937, Canadian cheese 
omitted from the calculation. During certain months exceptional prices of 
Canadian cheese were excluded and new-season Canadian cheese prices wt?re in- 
cluded. In 1935-36 and suhsequently in months when hoth Canadian and New 
Zealand cheese prices were used, the average prices were weighted according 
to imiports during the second preceding m.onth. 

c/ The formula was applied instead of a proposed flat rate of 3.75d. (0.5d. 
higher in Cornwall) . The formula: Average price per huxidredweight during 
preceding month of New Zealand Finest, Australian Choicest, and Dar.ish hutter 
(excluding 'Onsalted and exceptional quotations), weighted according to imports 
during the second preceding month, less 16s., divided hy 275 in the winter 
'' Septem.'ber-Fehr^aary) and hy 295 in the shammer, plus Id., suhject to a minimum 
price of 3d. in Cornwall the price was 0.5d. higher. 

^/ Same as in 1935-36 except divided hy 255 in winter and 285 in summer, hut 
in Cornwall divided hy 225 in winter and hy 245 in summer. The minimum price 
is to he 3.25d. (3.75d. in Cornwall). o/ Supplemented monthly hy the excess 
,if any) in the cheese-milk price of the preceding 3 months over 4.5d. per 



gallon, f/ 4.5d. after April 1. g_/ 7.5d. after March 1. 
./ 6,5d. after January 1. j_/ After April 1. 



n/ 



5d. after March 1. 



Uovemlier 2.3, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



639 



BRITISH MILK MAEKETING SCHSvIE, CONT'D 

Supplementary lejg isl ati on for increasi ng price 

Under the Milk Act, 1934, which tecame effective A'U-g'^st 15 of that 
year, the G-overniiient guaranteed a standard price of 5d. per gallon, 6d. 
October-March (8.3 to 10 cents per American gallon), for milk used for 
manufacture hetv/een March 31, 1934, and April 1, 1936. This law v/as sub- 
sequently extended to September 30,. 1937, pending the introduction of an 
" ear-m,arked" tariff on imported dairy products to provide subsidies to 
British mill: producers. For milk sold to factories by the board or manu- 
factured into cheese on farms the Government contributes out of public 
funds the difference between the cheese-milk price (calculated according 
to the boaird's original formula) and the standard price. For milk manu- 
factured in factories operated by the Milk Board the Government contributes 
either this differential contribution with reference either to the cheese- 
milk price or (if it is lower) the wholesale price at wnich milk used by 
the board for manufacturing into any particular product could have been 
bought >y any other person for the s.ome purpose. Conditional provision is 
made for repaying all Government contributions for this purpose made prior 
to April 1, 1936. If in any of the 24 subsequent months the cheese-milk 
price exceeds the standard price by more than Id., the bonrd must pay the 
Government the excess in price (less Id.) for the milk manufactured during 
that month. 



MILK: Utilization under the marketing scheme, England and V/alec, 

1933-34 to 1935-36 





Sold liquid 




Manufactured 




Total 


sa-les 




Y,'hole- 


Pro- 




Whole- 






Per- 


Whole- 


All 
con- 
tracts 


Date 


sale 
con- 
tract 


ducer- 
re tail- 
ers ij 


Total 


sale 
con- 
tr,^ ct 


Farm- 
house 
cheese 


Total 


cent 
of all 
sales 


selIc 
con- 
tract 
















Per- 


Million 






Million 


gallons b/ 




cent 


gallons b/ 


1933-34 




















Oct .-Mar . . . 


255 


56 


311 


63 




63 


16.9 


318 


374 


Apr. -Sept. . 


2 59 


54 


523 


129 


19 


148 


31.5 


398 


471 


Total .... 


524 


110 


634 


192 


19 


211 


25.0 


716 


845 


1934-35 




















Oct .-Mar . . . 


276 


52 


328 


112 


2.5 


114 


25.8 


387 


442 


Apr. -Sept. . 


276 


56 


332 


190 


12 


202 


37.8 


466 


■534 


Total .... 


5ffi 


108 


660 


302 


14 


316 


32.4 


85S 


976 


1935-36 




















Oct. -Mar. . . 


277 


47 


324 


129 


3. 6 


133 


29.1 


406 


457 


Apr. -Sept. c/ 
Total c/.. 


' (278) 


(55) 


(333) 


(216) 


(14) 


(230) 


(41) 


(494) 


(563) 


(555) 


(102) 


(657) 


(345) 


(18) 


(363) 


(36) 


900 


(1,020) 



Agricultural Register 1935-36 and reports issued by Milk Marketing Board, 
a/ Excludes sales on which the levy was not assessed on gallonage basis. 
W Imperial gallons, 5 of which equal 6 Ajnerican gallons, 
c/ Preliminary, partly estimated. 



640 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, 1^0. 21 



BRITISH MlUi MIBKETING SCHEME, CONT'D 

The method of calculating the hoard' s cheese-milk price vras altered 
heginning Ai;ril 1, 1S35, and the hoard's milk-f or-huttar selling price 
since October 1935 has been calculated according to a hutter price formula 
(see footnotes to table on page 638). The method of calculating the 
C-overrjnent ' s subsidy rates as laid down in the Milk Act, 1934, however, has 
not been altered and the subsidy rates for both these products are still 
calculated by reference to the old cheese-milk formula. The result has been 
that the subsidy sometimes fails to bring the board' s gross return for milk 
.made into cheese or butter up to the "guaranteed" 5d. or 6d. per gallon. 

The Milk Act also authorizes the use of public funds to improve the 
healthfulness of milk and, by subsidizing sales at reduced prices to school 
children, etc., to expand milk consumption. The budget contemplates ex- 
penditure for subsidy during the 18 months April- Sept ember 1936-37, of 
£2,500,000 for repa.yable advances for certa.in mpjiuf actured milk in G-reat 
Britain, £100,000 for the same purpose in Northern, Ireland and £500,000 for 
increasing the demand for milk in addition to £1,000,000 previously allotted 
to this purpose. 

Higher tariff conside red 

Increased tariff protection for British dairy industry interests is 
a distinct possibility. The Milk Marketing Board is collaborating vdth the 
Pigs Marketing Board, the j)Iationa.l Earmers' Union, and the Central Landowners' 
Association in a joint appeal to the Board of Trade that pending trade agree- 
ments with foreign and Empire coimtries will not preclude the right to impose 
higher duties. The Milk Marketing Board, acting in conjunction with the 
National Farmers' Union, has asked the Government to im.pose an ear-marked 
tariff on both Dominion and foreign dairy products and to apply the proceeds 
as a subsidy to British milk producers. 

A tariff of 15s. per hundredweight (about 3 cents per pound) on butter 
and cheese vfith 50-percent preference for Empire supplies has been suggested. 
This supplements an application that they miade previously to the Import 
Duties Advisory Committee for increased duties on foreign condensed milk and 
milk powder. This application has been under consideration by the Committee 
for over a year and, although no trade agreement bars the way to increased 
duties, no decision has been announced. Since 1932 non-Empire butter has 
been dutiable at 15s. per hundredweight, with Empire butter admitted free. 
If additional tariff protection is granted there is ample room for British 
dairy expansion, chiefly at the expense of Danish ar.d Australian butter and 
Canadian and New Zealand cheese. Numerous foreign suppliers are also con- 
cerned. 



November 23, 1935 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



641 



. PEOGEESS OF AGRICULTURAL TEADE WITH CANADA 

Exports of United States a.gricultural products to Canada were 
valued e,t $5o,000,000 during the first 9 montiis of Jiiis year as compared 
with. $50,000,000 during the corresponding period of 1935. Of the increase, 
considerably more than naif is attributable to items on ?/nich Canadian 
duties were reduced under the- United St:a.tes-Ca.nadian Eeciprocal' Trade Agree- 
m.ent, in spite of the fact that these were considerably less than half of the 
tota,l trade. During the third q.uarter of the present year the exports of 
agricultural items on which Canadian duties were reduced increased $1,300,000, 
while the agricultural items which were not included in the agreement de- 
creased $20,000, by comparison y/ith the third qiiarter of the preceding year. 

Imports of agricultural commodities from Cane.da a,mounted to $66,000,000 
during the lirst 9 months of 1936. Of these, $13,700,000 consisted of items 
on which American duties were reduced under the trade agreement, while 
$52,600,000 consisted of items not included in the agreement. 

Exp ort s_ 

This year's increase over last year in exports of agricultural prod- 
ucts to Canada was continued in September for most items. The September 
trade e,lso indicated increases over August figures in miost cases, despite 
seasonal considerations and the continued upward moveffient in Americaii prices. 
Tifnere declines below September 1935 were recorded, hov/ever, they were not 
s^■lf f iciently large to offset the lead over 1935 estciblisxied for those items 
in the earlier months of this year. 

Prominent among the items for which September figures v/ere larger 
than those of a year ago are lard, pickled pork, bacon, and certain types 
of fresh and canned meat. Exports of hams and shoulders fell off sharply in 
September. 

In the important frtiit group, September figures larger than those of 
last year were registered for fresn pears, grapefruit, grapes, berries, and 
melons. Exports of both apples and oranges showed some decline below the 
1935 figures. In dried fruit, however, substantial gains were recorded for 
apples, pears, pea.ches, apricots, ejid fruit for sa.lad. Canned apricots, 
peaches, e.nd pinea;pples also m.oved in le.rger volume this year than, last, 
with a decline showing for canned pears. 

Other items in which the September export trade was larger than le^st 
year include nuts (especially pecans), honey, and molasses. Advanc--:-s also 
\Yere recorded for such items as wheat, wheat ilo-ca', and cereal foods. There 
was also a. larger export ffiOVem.ent of timothy seed, despite the fa.ct that im- 
ports of most forage seeds increased notictably in Scjpte.mber . There was 
practically no change in the limited volume- of rice moving to Cansida in 
recent months, the fignires representing only fractional parts of lest year's 
tra.de, Tne egg ejqport movement in September this year la.rger than in 

1935, but exports of butter declined. 



642 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Yol. 33, Eo. 21 



PHOC-SESS OF AC-RICUL^TUIliil TRAHS vIlTE CiHADA, CONT'D 

Imports 

The continued relatively'- attractive position of many American agri- 
cult"aral prices in September encouraged the import movement from Canada. 
Imports increased over August figures for practically all concession items 
except cheese, dressed poultry, and horses. The September figures for all 
out a few items were larger than, in September 1935. 

Total dutiable cattle imports in September, largely from Canada, 
reached 22,297 head. If imports in the October- December period are main- 
tained at the September rate, the total for the period vrould .?jaount to 
66,891 head. Imports in the corresponding 3 months of 1935 reached 95,656 
head. The indicated total imports for the year 1936 would amoujit to 421,157 
head against 364,623 head in 1935, an increase for this yea.r of 55,544 head. 

By November 7, 1936, less then 1 percent of the reduced-d'aty quota for 
cattle of 700 pounds or more, e::cluding dairy cows, remained to be filled. 
Imports of quota ca.ttle during October from both Canada and Mexico stood at 
only moderate levels, and considerably under the September total of 7,947 
head. The September imports of cattle weighing less thaji 700 pounds from 
both Canada and Mexico were slightly larger than in August 1935 and Septem.ber 
1935. The increase was in cattle weighing between 175 and 599 pounds, which 
pay the full duty of 3 cents per pound. 

The reduced imports of cheddar cheese in September were accompanied 
by a slight decline in domestic production and a continued firmness in prices. 
Total imports for the first 9 months of 1936, amo-ojiting to 9,345,000 pounds, 
represented 2.41 percent of a domestic production figure of 386,290,000 
pounds. In 1935, cheese imports from Canada, largely cheddar, totaled 594,000 
pounds in the first 9 months and represented 0.16 percent of a domestic pro- 
duction of 370,733,000 pounds. Prices this year have averaged about 8 percent 
higher than in 1935. 

Imports of certified seed potatoes continue to reflect greater American 
interest this year than last in Canadian stock, but the quantity remains 
seasonally small. The September imports of table stock were sm.aller than, in 
August v/hen they were seasonally low. The limited current business in tabic 
stock, however, was considerably larger than that of last year. In cream, 
September imports of nearly 5,700 gallons were about 2,200 gallons smaller 
than the combined imports of the 8 preceding months. Total imports for 9 
months, however, continue to represent a negligible addition to available 
supplies. 

In the fruit group, imports of fresh apples in September were larger 
than in August but remained under the 1935 figures. In cherries and blue- 
berries, however, increases over last year vjere recorded, as was time also 
for maple sugar, turnips, and certain forage seeds. 



Novesiljer 23, 1936 foreign Crops ajid Markets 64g 

PROGRESS OF AORICIJLim^ ILniuDB i/lTH CMiUDA, CONT'D 
CATTLE: Imports into the United States from Canada and iviexico, 



t'j months, 1935 and 1936 







: ?'J0 pounds and over 


1 Under 


700 pounds 




Country J 
year, ejad 
month 


; Dairy 
; cows 


; Qtners 


, lot c'.± 


Less tiian 
[ 175 ■ 
' pounds 


, 1 rO LO 

pounds 


' m _ J.. _ -1 

; 101/ 3.1 


: Total 
; dutiable 
cattle 






Numb e r 


, Number 


Nii'nber 


Number 


Number 


; Num.bar 


Number 


CA!JjiDA; 


















1935 - 


Janua.ry , . , . 


a/ 




1,274 






173 


1,447 




Eetiruary. . . . 


a/ 


a/ 


3,502 






677 


4, 179 




Ma.rch 




a/ 


11,390 


a/ 


a/ 


4,381 


15 , 771 




April 




a/ 


•13,487 




a/ 


5,443 


18 ,930 




May 




a/ 


14,142 






5,611 


20 , 753 




June »'.....,. 




a/ 


6,460 


- 




4,858 


11,318 




July 

Augas t 


d ■ 

a/ 


a / 


2 , 483 
1,987 


i'l 


a/ 


3,670 
3,531 


6 J 153 

O , UXo 




beptember, , » 


/ 


a./ , , „ 


2,055 


il 

a/ 


-'/ 
. a/, . 


7 , 346 






iox;a± ..... ■ 


^ / 


a// 


56, 781 


a/ 


a/ 


^ 35, b90 






J STOlBXy _ 


290 


8 , 5 74 


8 , 864 




832 


1 , 728 


X W , ^ J (Zj 




x-euruary, . . , ,• 


..181 


8 , 683 


8 , 8 64 


-L , C/0\) 


509 


1, 759 


XU , OL'O 




Mai ciit ........ 


<dUO 


14 , obi 


14, 851 




905 


3,04o 






April 






o4 ,bic I 




o , 2dO 


9 , o75 






May : 


y20 


2o , 731 


24, bDl 


9 054 


2, 329 


11 , 585 


36 034 




June ; 




20 , 738 . 


21 , 502 


J- i , ( 


2,548 


16 , 885 


'707 




Til 1 TT ' 

July ; 




o , o43 


9 , 207 


1 ^ 1 98 


2 , 40 6 


Id, o04 


P5 81 1 




.August , 




ji: r\'~Z ^ 


5 , 8 rO 


? 631 


4 , 034 


5 , oo5 


12 535 




oopt/'rifflDer, . . 




/ , 902 


b 5 /I r 


1 354 


o , 248 


7 J 602 


16 31 9 

J- w - ox 




lotai 




132,458 


137,353 




23 , 0 51 


75,327 


ol . COL' 


vijIjaJ. uU : 


















1 Q '7 R 


January ' 


/ 

a/ 


a/ 


68 


a/. 


a/ 


4,313 


4, ool 




Deoruary ; 


a/ 


a/ 


22 


a/ 


a/ 


33,535 


OO , J'tJ o 




March, ; 


„ / 
a/ 


/ 

a/ . 


52 




a/ 


36,088 


O U , XtJw 




Apr il 


a ^ 


a/ 


770 , 


a/ : 


a/ 
a/ 


29 , 733 






wiay 


ay 


a/ 


242 


a/ 


25,062 






June '• 


a/ 


i 

a/ 


946 


Q / 




19 ,581 


OC\ K,P7 




Julv : 


^ / 


/ 

a/ ' 


194 


/ 

ay 


a/ 


10, 652 


•1 n SAP 

XU , OrrC 




AUji^ust : 


a/ 


a/ 


514 


a/ 


/ 

a/ 


9 , 216 


9 730 




Septemher , . . .: 


, .a/ 


„ / 


49 




/ 

a/ . 


3 , 419 


O , 3: w 




Total ; 


a/ 




? >^ h 7 




. „. ay 


1 7? 




1936 - 


Janua.ry j 


0 


2,519 


2,319 


161 ; 


8,338 


8,499 


10,818 




Deoraary \ 


0 


3,301 


3,301 


32 


13,819" 


13,851 


17,152 




Mar ch j 


0 


5,855 


5 , 855 


33 : 


27,195 


27,228 . 


33,083 




April : 


0 


3,191 


3,191 


259 • 


30,372 


30,631 ; 


33,822 




May : 


0 


4,027 


4,027 


128 


14,727 


14,855 


16,882 




June. 


0 


665 ; 


666 


12 


7,09 5 


7,108 


7, 774 




July : 


0 


1,306 : 


1,306 


831 ; 


5,346 


6,227 


7,533 




August : 


0 


557 


557 


93 i 


5,347 


5 , 440 


5,997 




Septenher . . . .; 


0 


45 


45. 


9 : 


5,773 • 


5 , 732 


5 , 827 




Total ■ 


0 


21,267 


21,267 


1,608 118,013 119,621 ; 


140,888 



a/ Not classified prior to Jajiuary 1, 1936. 



644 



ro'reigii Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 21 

PEOGESSS OF AGEICULTURA-L TRADE WITH CMADk, COITT'D 



CHEDDAS CHEESE: United States production, and imports from Canada, 
"by months, average 1925-29, annual 1935 and 1936 





Average 1925-29 


1955 


1935 






J-IllU U JL U o 


Percent 






Percent 






.Percent 


Month 


• Prn- 


' imports 


■ Pro- 


Imports 


imports 


Pro- 


Imports 


imports 


J- i Uii^ 


are of 


duc t i on 


from 


are of 


duction 


from 


are cf 




U-'U.L^ 0 J. Ull 


P rsTi Q /i Q 


pro- 




Canada 


pro- 




Canada 


pro- 






- s/ 


duction 




a/ 


duction 






duction 




1, 000 


1,000 




1,000 


1 , 000 




1 , 000 


1,000 






pounds 


pounds 


Percent 


pounds 


pounds 


Percent 


pounds 


•pounds 


Percent 


Jan . . . . 


IS , 190 


467 


2.57 


22,197 


150 


0.68 


29 ,455 


707 


2.40 


Feh 


16,717 


284 


1.52 


21,919 


49 


,22 


27,051 


605 


2.24 


Mar. . . . 


23,128 


337 


1.46 


26,914 


103 


.38 


32,409 


1 , 526 


4.70 


Apr. , . , 


27 , 809 


328 


1.18 


32,825 


47 


.14 


37,089 


373 


1.01 


May. . . . 


38 , 224 


. 424 


1.11 


48 , 926 


66 


.13 


52,395 


122 


0.23 


June . . . 


46,061 


756 


1.64 


60 , 560 


63 


.10 


67 ,101 


493 


0.73 


July. . . 


42,029 


742 


1.77 


55 ,-238 


36 


.07 


53,032 


1,814 


3.42 


Au.g .... 


34,976 


595 


1.70 


53 , 101 


55 


.10 


44,451 


2 , 339 


5.26 


Sept . . . 


29 , 461 


509 


1.73 


49 ,053 


24 


.05 


43 , 307 


1,367 


3.16 


Oct : 


25,105 


1,159 


4.62 


42,114 


61 


.14 








Hov . . . . ' 


18 , 224 


1,342 


7.35 


28,811 


82 


.28 








Lec 


17 , 375 


1,273 


7.33 


27 , 341 


33 


.12 








Total 


339 ,299 


8 , 215 


2.42 


463 , 999 


7<^Q 


.16 





a/ Mostly cheddar cheese, h/ Pinal figares. c/ Preliminary figures revised on 
■'oasis of final figures for 1935. 



POTATOES: Imports into the United States from Canada and total imports, 
hy months. 1954-35 and 1935-36 







1934-35 






1 


955-56 






Certified seed 


Total 


Certified seed 


.Total 


Month 


potatoes 


potatoes 


potatoes a/ 


p'otatoes 




Canada 


Total 


Canada 


Total 


Canada 


Total 


Cane.da 


Total 




Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushe 1 s 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Bushels 


Sec, . , . 


5 , 792 


3,792 


35,897 


57 , 634 


25,618 


25, 513 


35,797 


41,750 


Jan .... 


0 


0 


28 , 532 


37,299 


20 , 634 


20, 654 


50,506 


55,227 


?eh 


14,650 


14, 550 


35,9 51 


40,985 


7,035 


. 7,056 


15,257 


50 , 621 


Mar .... 


14,895 


14,893 


46 , 756 


48,497 


188 ,919 


188,919 


190,682 


206,862 


Apr. . . . 


5,017 


6.017 


29 ,483 


51,451 


155, 599 


155,599 


174,448 


190,552 


Kay 


10,252 


10,252 


104,022 


106,819 


19 ,964 


19,9 54 


55,877 


67 ,044 


o''ine . . . 


2,444 


2,444 


5,715 


5,715 


16,633 


16, 648 


217,481 


225,008 


Jily. . . 


0 


0 


146 


192 


25 


25 


59,937 


60,246 


A^:ig. . . . 


0 


0 


0 


415 


2 , 492 


2,492 


12,554 


12,814 


Gept . . . 


0 


0 


55 


110 


2,671 


2, 671 


5,155 


5,522 


'lotal 


; . 52 , 048 


52,048 


284,552 


539,096 


419 , 591 


419 , 606 


805,474 


875,246 


a/ The 


quota yea 


r "begins 


Decemher 


1. 











Horeiaber 23, 193^^ yajr^igji Crr»p>s and Markets 

PH0C3ESS ^7 AQHICUimAL TMIE mm QMIXA, OOilT'D 
imiTED STATES: Exports to Canada of agricultu 



645 



ral commodities on vhidi 
1935 and 1936 



Com:nodi ty 



inimals - 

Horses 

Live poultry 

Other 

Total animals 

Meats - 

Pork, pickled or salted 
Hams end shoulders 
Bacon and sides 
Pork , canned . . 
Pork , fresh . . . 
Other meats . . . 

Total meats . 
Other animal products - 
Lard (inclixding neutral 

lard) 

Sausage casings 

Eggs in the shell 

Miscellaneous 

Total animal prodacts 
G-rains and grain products ■ 

Corn and cornmeal 

Pice, cleaned 

l/5heat and wheat flour . . 
Biscuits, unsweetened ■ . 
Hominy and corn grits . . 
Other 

Total grains and 

grain products 

Vegetables and preparation 

Potatoes 

Other fresh vegetables . 

Canned vegetables 

Dried vegetables 

Yegetable preparations . 

Total vegetables 

and preparations . . . 







January- 


Seiot ember 




Unit 


Quantity 


Valu 






: 1935 a/ 


1936 a/ 


' 1935 a/' 


aise^a/C 








1,000 
dollars 


; 1,000 

: dollars 


iieacL 
Thousand lb . 


123 

G 


231 

25 


6 

212 


• 66 

; 13 
: 244 








274 


; 323 


Thousand lb. 

TVi on q ri "h rl 1 "n 
TVi on ^^piVi r\ 1 "h 

Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb . 
Thousand lb. 


194 
38 
69 
303 
265 


431 
109 
129 
51 
350 


43 
44 
7 
29 
40 
60 


: 268 
: 89 
: 14 
47 

54 


Thousand lb. 


1.267 


3.432 




477 


inousancL xu. 
Thousand lb. 
inousano- cioz- 


DlO 

712 
15 


1 , ODid 

550 
100 


64 
219 
1 <') 
7 


183 
112 
33 

20 








300 


348_ 


Thousand bu. 
Million lb. 
Th ou s an d bu . 
Thousand lb . 
Million lb. 


Of 114 
7 

n / 1 ''^ 
O / J. o 

670 
6 


_t / 381 
3 

r> / 6R 

752 
6 


228 
234 

72 
136 

111 


356 
99 
R7 
77 
118 
291 








803 


1,028. 


.Million lb. . 


10 


11 


134 
2,280 
63 
54 

100 . 


274 
2,885 
96 
63 

121 








2,641 : 


3,445 



Continued - 



646 



Fareign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, Ho. 21 



PEOCrES?S OF AGHrCUJiTUEilL T?JJ)E WITH CANADA, CONT'D 



UtJITED STATES: Exports to Canada of agricaltural commodities on which, 
duties were reduced, Januar;^" -September, 1935 and 1936, cont'd 



Comrno di ty 


Unit 


O.uantity 


Value 




19^5 a/ 


1936 a/ 


1935 a/ 


1936 a/ 










1,000 


1,000 


Jruits and preparations - 








dollars 


dollars 




r! / 7f^P, 
Q-/ (DO 

371 
p / R '^11 

fc_/ O , O J- -L 

10 139 










Thousand "bx. 

J. ^^\J Uj.O CLJiJt \J^. • 

Thousand lb . 

T "hm I pn r1 111. 


. A 1 1 1 nq 

400 
p/ 7 001 
14 


r\ 1 1 Q1 1 
a/ i , X ±_ 

651 
547 


rl / ? fiPl 

847 

X tj U 

456 








Other fresh fruit 








1,638 


2,223 




Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 


213 
1,151 
463 


283 
1,428 
971 


14 
82 
54 


19 
114 






102 


Other dried and 




Thousand lb. 


590 


1,061 


33 


58 




Thouspjid lb. 


12 


158 


1 


11 




Thousand lb. 
Thousand lb. 


104 
519 


105 
1,552 


8 


8 




44 


112 


Other canned and 


preserved fruit 


Thousand lb. 


1, 102 


1,332 


108 


136 


Total fruit 












and preparations • . . . 








5,040 


6,873 



J.anuary- g ep.t emb e r. 



Nuts - 





Thousand 


lb. 


95 


827 


43 


193 




Thousand 


lb. 


330 


333 


84 


63 






lb. 


425 


1,160 


127 


256 


Molasses 


Thousand 


gal. 


- 212 


293 


42 


45 


Sirup, including maple .... 


Thous and 


gal. 


41 


35 


9 


11 




Thousand 


lb. 


96 


132 


7 


8 




Thousand 


gal. 


284 


509 


209 


347 


Eield and ga.rden seeds ..... 


Thousand 


lb. 


1,269 


3,461 


204 


309 


llursery and greenhouse 
























136 


200 












18 


19 












10,033 


13,689 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Coraraerce- 
§,/ Preliminary, b/ Cornmeal converted at the rate of 4 bushels of corn to 
1 barrel of meal. c/ IVheat flour converted at the rate of 4.7 bushels of wheat 
to 1 barrel of flour, d/ January to April, free entry having been granted 
under the agreement for these months only, e/ Apules converted at the following 
rates; 48 pounds to 1 bushel basket, 44 pounds to 1 box, 140 poimds to 1 barrel. 



ITovemDer 23, 1936 Toreign Crops and Ii'iarkets 647 

Pr.OGP^SS Ox^ AaiilCULTimJL TRADE WITH CAFiADa, CONT'D 

UNTTj^D STATES: ImX'Orts from Canada of e.gricultural commodities on vmich. 
duties wer e reduce d , J an uary - S ep t eirb e r , 13 35 and 13 36 



J anua r y- S c o t e mb e r 

■ Si^ — i— , 



Comifiodity 




! Unit 




Qu-antity 


Value 










1335 a 


' 1936 Pi 


^ 1335 a/ 


'1936 ay 














1 , 000 


1,000 


Cattle - 
















Weighing less than 700 


lb. b 


1 ; Thousand 


hea.d 


o o 


' 75 




1 1 73 


Weighing 700 Ih. or ovc 




. . . ; Thousand 


head 


5 7 


138 


3 471 


6 , 968 








he a,d 


9 3 


213 


4 o27 


' 3,141 


Boultry - 




















lb. 


8 


739 


4 


126 








lb. 


d/ 

! Si/— 


: 169 


d/ 


40 


Total poultry ....... 




. . . ; Thous and 


lb. 




9 6 b 


/I- 


1 


liorses worth not over $150 ea. 


. . . ; Thousand 


nead 




15 




1 , 782 


Cheese g/ 






















lb. 








1 , 251 


Other 




. . . : Thousand 


lb. 


. 534 


f/ 281 


7o 


f/ 53 


Total cheese gj 




. . . ; Thousand 


lb. . 


594 


h/9 , 627 


7d 


h/' 1,304 










406 


15 5 338 




22 








lb. 


o o 


? 1 77 

O 3 J- / 1 


33 


246 








tons 


i/ 18 


25 


i/ 165 


188 








bu. 


773 


45 


313 


16 


Vegetables - 
















Tiirnlps c.nd rutabagas.. 






49 


74 


2o0 


485 


Seed poi}ato6s (white "1 . 






o 


■ ?4 


27 


3?5 








lb. 




0 


3 


0 


















Truits - 






















lb. 


1,046 


1,452 


48 


78 








bu. 




5 


o 


6 


Other 






lb. . 


3d 


3 79 


9 


80 














L^3 


164 


Grass and otner forage seeds - 




















lb , 


1,974 


21 


357 


2 


Canp-da blue g'rass 






lb. ■ 


112 


110 


13- 


12 


Other ., 






lb. 


46 


l,5cS 


o 


_ao5 








lb. 




1 ,.oS5 


379 


1191 


Maple sugar 




. . , : Thousand 


ib. . 




5 ,.023 


. 236 


730 


iQ t p 1 












6,750: 


13,749 



Compiled from cfiici8.1 records of the Dureaii of icreign and Domestic Ccrmnerce, 
a/ Preliminary, b/ Agreemient affected only these v7eighing less than 175 pounds. 
These were not separately classified before January 1,-1936. c/ Does not in- 
clude poultry imported free for use as snip's stores, d/ Less than 500. e/ In- 
cluded in "other" prior to January 1, 1936, f/ Kot a concession item. Dx- 
cludes Sv;iss, Eomano , Eeggiano , Provoloni, Poquefort. h/ Sxclu.des also Gruyere, 
Slam, and blue-mold. _i/ Does not include hay im.ported free during- 1935 shortage, 
j/ Duty was reduced only on "oats, hulled, unfit for human consumption", not 
separately cla,ssified before January 1, 1336, and d'Ciring the first 9 m.onths of 
1336 formed 49 pyrcent by volum.e c.nd 35 percent by value of the item shown. 



648 Porei^::n Crops sjid Markets Vol. 33, ITo, 21 

PBCGPXSS OF AGPJGULTUPAL THAD3 WITH GiHADA, GOKT'D 

TOUTED STAT3S: Exports to Canada "by quarters, January- Sept emljer, 

1935 a:id 1936 ' 



Classification 



1935 



1936 a/ 



Increase 
or 

decrease 



All c Oram. odi ties - 
First quarter. . ■ 
Second quarter. , 
Third quarter. . , 



Pirst 9 months. 

IJon-agri cultural - 
Pirst quarter. . . , 
Second queri^er.. 
Third quarter. . , 



Pirst 9 months. 



Agricultural - 
Pirst quarter. . 
Second q\xarter. 
Thi rd quarter. . 



First 9 nonths 



Agricultural on which duties were 
Reduced under the agree.iient - 

Pirst quarter 

Second quarter 

Third q^i.mrter 



Pirst 9 months, 



Other agricultural - 

Pirst quarter 

Second quarter 

Third quarter , 



First 9 months 



xnousaiia 
dolla rs 

57,792 
83,233 
80 , 503 



231,578 



57 , 743 
72,737 
71.07S 



201 , 603 



10 , 049 
10,496 
9 ,425 



29,970 



3 , 562 
4,062 
2 , -iOO 



10,033 



6,437 
6 , 434 

7.016 



19,937 



Thousand 
dollars 

75,942 
98 ,976 
90,751 



265,669 



85,075 
30,085 



229 ,.595 



11,507 
13,901 
10,666 



36,074 



4,451 
5,568 
3. 670 



J.O , L'O 



7,056 

8 , 333 

a CO a 



22,385 



Thousand 
dollars 

+8 , 150 
+15, 693 
+10 , 248 



-t-34,091 



+6,692 
+12,283 
+3 ,007 



+27,987 



+1 , 458 
+3,405 

+1 , 241 



■^6 , 104 



+389 
+1,506 
+1.261 



+3, 656 



+569 
+1,899 



+2 . 448 



Coraijiled from official records of the I 
a/ Preliminary. 



ureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



Wovem'ber 23, 1936 Foreign Crops ^.nd Markets 649 

PSOGHSSS OF AGRICuLTUEAL TBIDE ¥ITH CMiDA, CONT'D 
UlIITED STATES: Imports from Canada by quarters, Janua ry- Sep temper , 



1935 and 193 6 


Classification 


; 1935 


1936 a/ 


Increase 
or 

decrease 


All comir:odities - 


Thousand 
; dollars 

' 71,690 


Thousand 
dollars 

74,029 
85,810 
102,554 


Thousand 
dollars 

+15,775 
+14,120 
+ 28,849 






262,393 


+58,744 


Hon- agricultural - 


\ 45,785 


57,105 
66,779 
72,189 


+11,320 
+11, 516 
+13,725 






196,073 


+36,561 


Agricultural \l - 


, . : 12,469 • 

. , : 16,427 
; 15,241 


16,924 
19,031 
30,365 


+4,455 
+ 2,604 
+ 15 , 124 




, , , . : 44,137 


66 , 320 


+ 22,183 


Agricultural on which duties were 
reduced under the agreement - 


2,136 

. , , , ; 3,532 
' 1,062 


3,786 
6,418 

3,545 


+ 1, 650 
+ 2,886 
+ 2,483 




, : 6,730 


13 , 749 


+ 7,019 


Other agricultural - 


, , , . : 10,333 
12,895 


13 , 138 
12,613 
26,820 


+ 2,805 
-282 
+ 12 , 641 






52,571 


+ 15,164 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
a/ Preliminary. \l Does not include distilled spirits. 



650 



Foreign Crops an.d LI;arkets 



Vol. 33, Fo. 21 



Index 



Late cables 624 ; 

Crop and Liarket Prospects 625 : 



AGRICULTUE.il trade, UlTITSD STATES- 

CAi^ADA, JAiTUARY-SEPTaiBER, 1936 641-649 

Apples, exports to U.K., Canada 

and U.S., Oct. 31, 1936 631 

Corn, crop condition, ilrgentina, 

Kov. 19, 1936 624 

Cotton: 



Deliveries, Shanghai, Octo"ber 1936 628 
Iraports : 

China, Octo Der-Septernher , 1935-36 628 
Japan , Sep t em"b er , 1935 , 1936 . . 629 , 630 



Prices, Shanghai, Nov. 11, 1936 .. 629 
Stocks: 

Shanghai, Oct. 31, 1936 629 

Japa,n, Sep tern "bar 1936 631 

Flaxseed, crop condition, A^'gentino, 

Nov. 19, 1936 624 



IviILK, IviARKETIIIG SCHEiiE, 

C-RHiT BRITAIIT, 1933-1936 634-640 

Rice: 

Carry-over, Japan, 1935,193? 627 

Production, Japan, 1935,1936 627 

Rye, production, Canada, 1935,1936 625 

Wheat : 

Growing conditions: 



Argentina, Octolier 1936 625 

Australia, October 1935 625 

Mark et conditions; 

China, xlov. 13, 1936 626 

Jajjan, Nov. 1, 1936 526 

prices, Tokyo, Nov. 1, 1936 626 

Production : 

Canada, 1935,1935 625 

Latvia, 1935,1935 624 

Union of South Africa, 1935, 1935 524 
Wool: 

I/Iarket conditions, U.K., 

November 1935 633 



Sales, London, Nov. 17, 1935 524,632